On the Materiality of the Audio-Visual Heritage

Elías Querejeta Zine Eskola in Donostia (San Sebastián), Spain, from 28 September to 1 October and on 26 November 2021


How has sound and image been recorded and reproduced? We will explore the various approaches that have been undertaken during the one a half past centuries and discuss why some succeeded and others did not. Understanding the original processes is the foundation not only for conservation but also for successful modern restorations.

This class is a technical history of both the sound and the moving image record and their reproduction. The acoustic, electrical, magnetic and digital era are considered for sound; the photographic, mechanical, magnetic and digital era for moving images. Not only the current archival media (radio, film, television and video) are explored, but also computers, video games and even space exploration.


Tuesday 28th September

Wednesday 29th September

Thursday 30th September

Friday 1st October

Friday 26th November (poster presentation)

  • Amanda Devulsky: U-matic
  • Camila Fernandes Vale: SECAM
  • Camila Reyes Alberti: Cellophane (Ozaphan)
  • Cristina Somavilla: VHS
  • Catalina Altuna: Technicolor
  • Francisco Borges: Nagra
  • Laura Ibañez: Recordon
  • Lorena Soria: Pathé Baby (9.5 mm)
  • Malen Nicholson: Sound on film
  • Margaux Chalançon: Digital Betacam
  • Maria Patrao: Slideshows
  • Milagros Valerio: Floppy Disk
  • Renata Arcos: Kodachrome
  • Rocío Ortega: Video8 and Hi8
  • Rodrigo Sousa: Single 8


Media Handling

Film Identification

  • Alfonso del Amo García: Classificar para preservar, Filmoteca Española, Madrid 2006
  • Brian R. Pritchard: Identifying 16 mm Films. Staffs 2013
  • Brian R. Pritchard: Identifying 35 mm Films. Staffs 2011 and 2013
  • Brian R. Pritchard: Identifying Motion Picture Film Sound Tracks. Staffs 2021
  • Kodak Edge Codes by Code, PDF, 327 KB (MD5 = 5493b48d6fbcf44bf7e51987f9557ab5)
  • Kodak and Dupont Edge Codes by Year, PDF, 97 KB (MD5 = 3934a05a933c4e42846e0bbdd8109492)
  • Kodak Edge Codes for 8 mm and 16 mm, PDF, 33 KB (MD5 = 3feb48c09cfeb5757739bf6ce08394a2)
  • 16 mm and 8 mm Camera Identification, PDF, 319 KB (MD5 = dbc599c59fcd9a9bb4268f2451c65195)
  • 16 mm Camera Identification, PDF, 61 KB (MD5 = 7852f83cbc53392bf75fb341558908ca)

Video Identification

Media Storage